Archives: Walking & bicycling

 

Staunton 2003 - “Promoting Safe Walking and Biking to School: The Marin County Success Story”

Saunton, Catherine E.; Hubsmith, Deb; Kallins, Wendi.
“Promoting Safe Walking and Biking to School: The Marin County Success Story”
American Journal of Public Health
September 2003; v.93, n.9.; pp. 1431-1434
On the Web
Relevance: low

In 1999 Marin County residents started a program to increase the number of local children walking to school.  Over two school years participating public reported that trips by walking increased by 64%, biking by 114%, and carpooling by 91%.  Trips in which a private vehicle carried only one student decreased by 39%.

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Retting 2003 - “A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes”

Retting, Richard A.; Ferguson, Susan A.; McCartt, Ann T.
“A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes”
American Journal of Public Health
September 2003; v.93, n.9.; pp. 1456-1463.
On the Web
Relevance: low

The authors reviewed studies on engineering measures used to reduce the risk of pedestrian injuries.  These measures were classified into speed control, separation of pedestrians from vehicles (in time and space), and increased visibility of pedestrians. Highly effective measures include:

  • single-lane roundabouts,
  • sidewalks,
  • exclusive pedestrian signal phasing that stops all traffic while pedestrians cross all ways,
  • pedestrian refuge islands, and,
  • increased intensity of roadway lighting

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Rivara 1989 - “Analysis of Fatal Pedestrian Injuries in King County, WA and Prospects for Prevention”

Rivara FP, Reay DT, Bergman AB.
“Analysis of Fatal Pedestrian Injuries in King County, WA and Prospects for Prevention”
Public Health Reports
May-June 1989; v.104, n.3; pp.293-297.
On the Web
Relevance: medium

The authors analyzed pedestrian fatalities for 12 months in King County, WA.  They found that victims were generally children (29%), the elderly (34%), or intoxicated adults (24%).

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Jacobsen 2003 - “Safety in Numbers: More Walkers and Bicyclists, Safer Walking and Bicycling”

Jacobsen, Peter Lyndon
“Safety in Numbers: More Walkers and Bicyclists, Safer Walking and Bicycling”
Injury Prevention
September 2003; v.9,n.1; pp.205-209.
One the Web
Relevance: high

Jacobsen analyzed various datasets from Europe and California to compare accident rates per capita across differing rates of walking/biking.  He found that as the rates of walking/biking increase, the total number of accidents increases as expected, but the likelihood that an individual pedestrian or cyclist will be hit by a car decreases.

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Saelens 2003 - “Neighborhood-Based Differences in Physical Activity: An Environment Scale Evaluation”

Saelens, Brian E.; Sallis, James F.; Black, Jennifer B.; Chen, Diana.
“Neighborhood-Based Differences in Physical Activity: An Environment Scale Evaluation”
American Journal of Public Health

September 2003; v.93, n.9.
On the Web
Relevance: high

Saelens et al conducted a small preliminary study using accelerometers and surveys to analyze how activity levels and body mass indexes differ between two neighborhoods: one with high-walkability, one with low-walkability.  They found that residents of high-walkability neighborhoods walked more for errands, engaged in more moderate to vigorous physical activity, and were less likely to be overweight.  Interestingly, this study suggests that walkability primarily affects walking for errands but not walking for exercise.

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Powell 2003 - "Places to Walk: Convenience and Regular Physical Activity"

Powell, Kenneth E.; Martin, Linda M. ; Chowdhury, Pranesh P.
“Places to Walk: Convenience and Regular Physical Activity.”
American Journal of Public Health.
September 2003; v.93, n.9; pp. 1519-1521.
On the Web
Relevance: low

By a telephone survey study participants were asked to name safe and convenient places to walk.  Most participants could name at least one place and those who could name more places were more likely to be physically active.

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Giles-Corti 2003 - “Relative Influences of Individual, Social Environmental, and Physical Environmental Correlates of Walking”

Giles-Corti, Billie and Donovan, Robert J.
“Relative Influences of Individual, Social Environmental, and Physical Environmental Correlates of Walking.”
American Journal of Public Health.
September 2003; v.93, n.9; pp. 1583-1589.
On the Web
Relevance: high

Using a survey of healthy residents of Perth, Australia and an objective measure of access to places to walk, Giles-Corti and Donovan found that living on a quiet street with sidewalks, trees, and shops increased the likelihood that survey participants walked  the recommended daily amount.

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Craig 2002 - “Exploring the Effect of the Environment on Physical Activity: A Study Examining Walking to Work”

Craig CS, Brownson RC, Cragg SE, Dunn AL.
“Exploring the Effect of the Environment on Physical Activity: A Study Examining Walking to Work.”
American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
August 2002; v.23,n.2S2,s.1; pp36-43.
On the Web
Relevance: medium

Craig et al combined Canadian census data (demographics and journey to work) with neighborhood observations of walkability (density, diversity, design, safety) to find that environmental factors do influence walking to work.  Urbanization had the largest effect but variety of destinations, ease of walking, and social dynamics also played a role.

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Cervero 2003 - "Walking, Bicycling, and Urban Landscapes: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area

Cervero R and Duncan M.
“Walking, Bicycling, and Urban Landscapes: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area.”
American Journal of Public Health.
September 2003; v.93, n.9; pp1478-1483.
On the Web
Relevance: high

Cervero and Duncan used the 2000 Bay Area Transportation Survey, GIS, and meteorological data to determine the factors that influenced whether participants made short (<5 miles) trips by walking or biking.  The built environment (street design, mixed-use) had less influence than factors such as trip length, steep slopes, rain, nightfall, and demographics.

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Brownson 2001 - "Environmental and Policy Determinants of Physical Activity in the United States

Brownson RC, Baker EA, Housemann RA, Brennan LK, Bacak SJ.
"Environmental and Policy Determinants of Physical Activity in the United States."
American Journal of Public Health
December 2001; v.91,n12; pp1995-2003.
On the Web
relevance: low

Using a telephone survey based on the BRFSS, Brownson et al asked participants about  the environmental characteristics (parks, sidewalks, traffic, gyms) near their homes that may influence their physical activity.  Participants who met the daily physical activity requirements generally lived near sidewalks, enjoyable scenery, heavy traffic, and hills, and they had access to places to exercise.

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