Archives: Transit

 

Rajamani 2003 - "Assessing the Impact of Urban Form Measures in Nonwork Trip Mode Choice After Controlling for Demographic and Level-of Service Effects"

Jayanthi Rajamani, Chanra R.  Bhat, et al.
"Assessing the Impact of Urban Form Measures in Nonwork Trip Mode Choice After Controlling for Demographic and Level-of Service Effects"
Presented at the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting (2003)
Session 747: Transportation and Urban Form
Wednesday, January 15, 2003, 7:30 PM - 9:30 PM, Hilton
On the Web

The abstract:
The relation between travel behavior and the local built environment has always been a contentious issue, despite several research efforts in the area. The current paper investigates the significance and explanatory power of a variety of urban form measures on nonwork activity travel mode choice. The data used for analysis is the 1995 Portland Metropolitan Activity Survey conducted by Portland Metro. The multinomial logit mode choice model results indicate that higher residential densities and mixed-uses promote walking behavior for nonwork activities.

 

 

Crane 1998 - "Does Neighborhood Design Influence Travel?: A Behavioral Analysis of Travel Diary and GIS Data"

Randall Crane and Richard Crepeau
"Does Neighborhood Design Influence Travel?: A Behavioral Analysis of Travel Diary and GIS Data"
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
3(4):225-238 (July 1998)
On the Web

 

From the abstract:
An analysis of household travel diary and GIS data for San Diego finds little role for land use in explaining travel behavior, and no evidence that the street network pattern affects either short or long non-work travel decisions. While results may vary in other areas, the empirical argument for using land use as an element of regional air quality or other environmental plans remains to be demonstrated.

(I didn't read the study intensively enough to comment, but see Cervero and Gorham (1995) for another study on Southern California.)

 

 

Cervero 2002 - "Built Environments and mode Choice: Toward a Normative Framework"

Robert Cervero
"Built Environments and mode Choice: Toward a Normative Framework"
Transportation Research Part D
7(4):265-284 (2002)
On the Web

From the abstract:
The analysis reveals intensities and mixtures of land use significantly influence decisions to drive-alone, share a ride, or patronize transit, while the influences of urban design tend to be more modest. Elasticities that summarize relationships are also presented...

 

Cervero 1995 - "Commuting in Transit Versus Automobile Neighborhoods"

Robert Cervero and Roger Gorham
"Commuting in Transit Versus Automobile Neighborhoods"
Journal of the American Planning Association
61(2):210-225 (Spring 1995)

From the abstract:
This article compares commuting characteristics of transit-oriented and auto-oriented suburban neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area and in Southern California. Transit neighborhoods averaged higher densities and had more gridded street patterns compared to their nearby counterparts with auto-oriented physical designs. . . For both metropolitan areas, pedestrian modal shares and trip generation rates tended to be considerably higher in transit than in auto-oriented neighborhoods. Transit neighborhoods had decidedly higher rates of bus commuting only in the Bay Area. Islands of transit-oriented neighborhoods in a sea of freeway -oriented suburbs seem to have negligible effects on transit commuting.

 

Kingham 1998 - "Assessment of Exposure to Traffic-Related Fumes During the Journey to Work"

Kingham, Simon; Meaton, Julia; et al.
"Assessment of Exposure to Traffic-Related Fumes During the Journey to Work"
Transportation Research, Part D
July 1998; v.3, n.4; pp.271-274
On the Web
Relevance: medium-low

In a pilot study, the authors measured commuter's exposure to benzene and particulates using different modes (car, bus, train, road cyclist, path cyclist) but along similar routes(?). Findings include:

  • The car driver had the highest mean exposure to benzene (108.3 micrograms/m^3) a factor of at least 4 and also the highest mean exposure to particulates (7.6 absorbance), but by a much smaller margin.
  • Train riders had the lowest benzene exposure (12.9) and path cyclists had the lowest particulate exposure (2.7).
  • The bus was slightly better than the road bike
  • The exposure ratios for the car driver to the road cyclist were 4.05 for benzene and 1.26 for particulates.
  • The exposure ratios for the road cyclist to the path cyclist were 1.73 for benzene and 2.41 for particulates.

 

Adams 2002 - "Assessment of Road Users' Elemental Carbon Personal Exposure Levels, London, UK"

Adams, HS; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ; Colvile, RN.
"Assessment of Road Users' Elemental Carbon Personal Exposure Levels, London, UK"
Atmospheric Environment
November 2002; v.36, n.34; pp.5335-5342
On the Web
Relevance: low

The authors measured exposure to elemental carbon (EC) a component of diesel exhaust, along various routes, using different modes, and in summer vs. winter.  They found that exposure levels were higher:

  • for cars, followed by buses and bicycles (cyclists may have lower exposure because they don't get stuck in traffic and keep "away from the central road 'tunnel of pollution'.";
  • along the most congested central route, perhaps due to higher traffic density and a street canyon effect;
  • in winter, perhaps due to colder engines and more stable meteorological conditions.

 

Friedman 2001 - "Impact of Changes in Transportation and Commuting Behaviors During the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on Air Quality and Childhood Asthma"

Friedman, Michael S; Powell, Kenneth E; et al.
"Impact of Changes in Transportation and Commuting Behaviors During the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on Air Quality and Childhood Asthma"
Journal of the American Medical Association
February 21, 2001; vol.285, n.7; pp.897-905.
On the Web
Relevance: low

The authors compared the level of air pollution and asthma events during the Atlanta Olympics to levels just before and after. They found that ozone levels and asthma events were lower during the Oympics, likely due to changes in traffic patterns. The number of asthma acute care events decreased 41.6% in the Georgia Medicaid claims file.  Organizers increased public transportation, closed the downtown to cars, encouraged workers to change work hours, and made other adjustments. There are several caveats to this study, so we may not want to quote it alone, but it could be one building block of the case.

 

Adams 2001 - "Determinants of Fine Particle (PM2.5) Personal Exposure Levels in Transport Microenvironments, London, UK"

Adams, HS; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ; Colvile, RN
"Determinants of Fine Particle (PM2.5) Personal Exposure Levels in Transport Microenvironments, London, UK"
Atmospheric Environment
September 2001 v.35, n.27; pp.4557-4566
On the Web
Relevance: medium-low

The authors measured concentrations of fine PM on fixed routes using different modes (car, bus, bicycle) in London. They found that route was a significant factor, explaining 20% of the variation, but mode was not. Wind speed explained 18% of the variation. "Personal exposure levels were reasonable correlated with urban background FSM [fixed site monitor] concentrations."

 

Ewing 2002 - "Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact"

Ewing, Reid; Pendall, Rolf; Chen, Don
"Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact"
Smart Growth America
2002
On the Web
Relevance: high

Ewing et al. created a sprawl index for ~83 metropolitan areas, incorporating density, land use mix, centeredness, and street accessibility. The authors also estimated the impact of sprawl on various transportation-related outcomes. They found that a higher degree of sprawl is associated with higher average vehicle ownership, daily VMT per capita, annual traffic fatality rate, and maximum ozone level; more sprawl was associated with a lower share of work trips by transit and walking. Note that, as with most sprawl studies, we can't assume a causal relationship.

More notes...

 

Chertok 2004 - “Comparison of Air Pollution Exposure for Five Commuting Modes in Sydney – Car, Train, Bus, Bicycle and Walking”

Chertok, Michael ; Voukelatos, Alexander ; Sheppeard, Vicky ; and Rissel, Chris
“Comparison of Air Pollution Exposure for Five Commuting Modes in Sydney – Car, Train, Bus, Bicycle and Walking”
Health Promotion Journal of Australia
April 2004; v.15,n.1; pp.63-67
On the Web (pdf)
Relevance: high

The study measured the BTEX pollutant and NO2 exposure of 44 subjects on their regular daily commutes, each lasting at least 30 minutes each way.  Car commuters were exposed to the highest levels of BTEX pollutants, while bus commuters were exposed to the highest levels of NO2.  Train (light and heavy rail) commuters were exposed to the lowest levels of all pollutants measured.  Walking and cycling commuters were exposed to significantly lower levels of BTEX than car commuters and of NO2 than bus commuters. 

More notes...