Chang 2000 - "Hourly Personal Exposures to Fine Particles and Gaseous Pollutants--Results from Baltimore, Maryland"

Chang, Li-Te; Koutrakis, Petros; et al
"Hourly Personal Exposures to Fine Particles and Gaseous Pollutants--Results from Baltimore, Maryland"
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association
July 2000; v.50, n.7; pp.1223-1235
On the Web
Relevance: medium

The authors measured personal VOC exposure in a variety of microenvironments that older adults generally encounter. PM 2.5 concentrations were highest in the food court, while walking and driving, and in a kitchen and TV room at home. Ozone levels were elevated while walking at noon and while driving. Carbon monoxide levels were elevated i the middle of the day and while driving.

Ambient concentrations of PM 2.5 seem to be fairly well with personal exposure (r>.6 for all but one case). Ambient concentrations of ozone were also highly correlated with personal exposure for outdoor and in-vehicle microenvironments, less so for indoor environments, and barely at all for homes. There seems to be little correlation between ambient BTEX levels and personal exposures in homes and cars (except for benzene in homes), which suggests to me that personal exposure in those places comes mostly from personal activities (cooking, cleaning, and driving).

 

Chan 1991 - "Commuter Exposure to VOCs in Boston, Massachusetts"

Chan, Chang-Chuan; Spengler, John D; et al.
"Commuter Exposure to VOCs in Boston, Massachusetts"
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association
December 1991; v.41, n.12; pp.1594-1600
On the Web
Relevance: high

The authors measured VOC exposure for four commuting methods (car, subway, walking, biking) plus concentrations in homes, offices, and on the sidewalk in Boston. They found that concentrations were generally highest in cars and lowest in homes/offices. "For most VOCs, the concentrations in homes and offices were about three to five times lower than the VOC concentrations during commuting." Around 10-20% of daily VOC exposure for car and subway commuters occurred during the commute.

Driving on urban roads was correlated with higher VOC concentrations (1.5 times higher) than driving on interstates.  Using the heater also increased VOC levels. On the other hand, the age of the car or country of origin (US vs. imported) did not seem to make a difference.

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Riediker 2003 - "Exposure to Particulate Matter, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Other Air Pollutants Inside Patrol Cars"

Riediker, Michael; Williams, Ronald; et al.
"Exposure to Particulate Matter, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Other Air Pollutants Inside Patrol Cars"
Environmental Science and Technology
2003; v.37 n.10; pp.2084-2093
On the Web
Relevance: high

The authors measured PM and VOCs in patrol cars, roadsides, and a remote (ambient) site in North Carolina. They found that BTEX levels were significantly higher in the cars; elemental carbon levels were higher in the cars; but NO2 and PM2.5 levels were a little higher in at the ambient site; and ozone levels were nearly twice as high at the ambient site.

 

Larson 2004 - "Source Apportionment of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal PM2.5 in Seattle, Washington, Using Positive Matrix Factorization"

Larson, Timothy Gould, Timothy; et al.
"Source Apportionment of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal PM2.5 in Seattle, Washington, Using Positive Matrix Factorization"
Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association
September 2004, v.54, n.9; pp.1175-1187
On the Web
Relevance: medium

The authors measured indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Seattle and estimated the sources of this PM. They concluded that vegetative burning (wood, incense, candles) contributed the most PM mass to outdoor (35%), indoor (49%), and personal (62%) exposure. In general, it seems that PM concentrations are higher outdoors than indoors.

 

Payne-Sturges 2004 - "Personal Exposure Meets Risk Assessment: A Comparison of Measured and Modeled Exposure and Risks in an Urban Community"

Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Burke, Thomas A.; et al.
"Personal Exposure Meets Risk Assessment: A Comparison of Measured and Modeled Exposure and Risks in an Urban Community"
Environmental Health Perspectives
April 2004; v.112, n.5; pp.589-598
On the Web
Relevance: low

The authors measured personal exposure, indoor concentrations, and outdoor concentrations of VOCs in South Baltimore, an area near chemical industries and an interstate highway. They found that personal exposure was generally higher than indoor concentrations, which were higher than outdoor concentrations. The authors report these concentrations and the associated cancer risks. Their main goal was to compare their measured estimates to estimates from the ASPEN model.

 

Levy 2000 - "Particle Concentrations in Urban Microenvironments"

Levy, Jonathan I; Houseman, E. Andres; et al.
"Particle Concentrations in Urban Microenvironments"
Environmental Health Perspectives
November 2000; v.108, n.11; pp.1051-1057.
On the Web
Relevance: medium

The authors measured particulate matter indoors and outdoors in seven microenvironments (subway, bus, restaurant, hospital, gymnasium, museum, store) in Boston. Particle counts for PM 0.3-0.5 were generally higher inside the subway and bus than outdoors, but lower inside the store, hospital, and museum. Particle counts overall were higher inside the subway and bus than outside.

 

Wong 2004 - "Assessing the Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction for Children"

Wong, Eva Y; Gohlke, Julia; et al.
"Assessing the Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction for Children"
Environmental Health Perspectives
February 2004; v.112, n.2; pp.226-232
On the Web
Relevance: low

The authors estimated the health and economic benefits to children of reductions in criteria air pollutants (except lead) due to the Clean Air Act from 1990 to 2010. They estimated a savings of $1-2 billion from fewer hospitalizations, emergency room visits, school absences, and low birth weight. The also estimated a savings of $0.6-$100 billion from decreased mortality.

 

PSCAA 2003 - "Final Report: Puget Sound Air Toxics Evaluation"

Keill, Leslie; Maykut, Naydene
"Final Report: Puget Sound Air Toxics Evaluation"
Puget Sound Clean Air Agency and Washington State Department of Ecology
October 2003
On the Web
Relevance: high

In this preliminary study, PSCAA measured and modeled exposure to outdoor air toxics in 6 locations around western King County, including Beacon Hill, Lake Sammamish, and Seatac. They estimated cancer risk using several methods, including one that takes into account commuting. They also seem to suggest that it may not matter much what macroenvironment you live in (i.e., Beacon Hill vs. Lake Sammammish): "Concentrations, and corresponding risks, were relatively consistent among areas measured and modeled throughout the Puget Sound region. Although some differences were apparent, overall it is clear that the sites and the region as a whole have similar emission sources of concern (e.g., diesel particulate matter, mobile-source-related VOCs, and probably woodsmoke)." Smaller geographical scale factors (busy road, factory, cleaning products) are not accounted for.

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Davies 2005 - "Economic Costs of Diseases and Disabilities Attributable to Environmental Contaminants in Washington State"

Davies, Kate; Hauge, Dietrich.
"Economic Costs of Diseases and Disabilities Attributable to Environmental Contaminants in Washington State"
Collaborative for Health and Environment-Washington Research and Information Working Group
July 2005
On the Web
Relevance: low

The authors estimated the health costs attributable to environmental contaminants in Washington (for selected diseases) by applying national and other state studies to Washington's population. They use national estimates of the Environmentally Attributable Fraction Range (EAFR) of diseases due to contaminants, disease and population rates for Washington, and disease cost estimates. They conclude that the total cost is $1.8 billion (2004$) for children and $2.7 billion for adults and children.

Unfortunately, this study does not really estimate the costs for Washington, but rather Washington's likely share of national costs because the study uses national attribution rates rather than WA specific ones.  For example, it may be that a higher or lower fraction of asthma in WA is due to environmental contaminants.

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Sexton 2004 - "Comparison of Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Exposures to Hazardous Air Pollutants in Three Urban Communities"

Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; et al.
"Comparison of Personal, Indoor, and Outdoor Exposures to Hazardous Air Pollutants in Three Urban Communities"
Environmental Science and Technology
2004; v.38, n.2; pp.423-430
On the Web
Relevance: high

The authors measure personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to 15 VOCs in three different neighborhoods of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN. They found that outdoor community air monitors greatly underestimate personal exposures and that even indoor monitors underestimate personal exposure. For example, for benzene, the personal/outdoor (P/O) ratio of estimated relative concentrations is 6.8, while the personal/indoor concentration (P/I) is 1.6.

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