Archives: Economics & finance


Birmingham 1999 - "The Cost of Obesity in Canada"

Birmingham, C. Laird; Muller, Jennifer L; et al
"The Cost of Obesity in Canada"
Canadian Medical Association Journal
February 23, 1999; v.160, n.4; pp.483-488
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Relevance: high

The authors reviewed the literature to calculate the direct medical cost of obesity in Canada.  They estimate that obesity cost over $1.8 billion, or 2.4% of the total health care expenditures, in Canada in 1997. The three top contributors were hypertension ($656.6 million), type 2 diabetes ($423.2 million), and coronary artery disease ($346.0 million).


Wolf 1996 - "Social and Economic Effects of Body Weight in the United States"

Wolf, Anne M.; Colditz, Graham A.
"Social and Economic Effects of Body Weight in the United States"
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
March 1996; v.63, n.3 (supplement); pp.466S-469S
On the Web
Relevance: medium

Wolf and Colditz estimated the direct and indirect costs of obesity using risk estimates for various diseases from the Nurses' Health Study and estimates of lost productivity from the1988 National Health Interview Study.  The authors estimate that "if obesity were prevented, the United States could have saved $45.8 billion in 1990 (in 1993 dollars) or (6.8%) of health care expenditures for that year."

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Burchell 2003 - "Conventional Development Versus Managed Growth: The Costs of Sprawl"

Burchell RW and Mukherji S.
“Conventional Development Versus Managed Growth: The Costs of Sprawl.”  American Journal of Public Health.
December 2003; v.91, n.9; pp1534-1540.1
On the Web
relevance: medium

Using a mathematical model to compare the effects of sprawl versus compact development, the authors find that sprawl requires converting more undeveloped land and building more roads and water/sewer infrastructure.  Sprawl also leads to higher pubic service costs and housing costs.

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