Archives: Canada

 

Katzmarzyk 2000 - "The Economic Burden of Physical Inactivity in Canada"

Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gledhill, Norman; Shephard, Roy J.
"The Economic Burden of Physical Inactivity in Canada"
Canadian Medical Association Journal
November 28, 2002; v.163, n.11; 1435-1440
On the Web
Relevance: high

The authors reviewed the literature to calculate the burden of physical inactivity in Canada. They conclude that physical inactivity costs Canada about $2.1 billion, or 2.5% of total direct health costs.  The also calculate the about 21,000 lives were lost prematurely in 1995 and that a 10% reduction in inactivity could save Canada $150 million a year.

 

Retting 2003 - “A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes”

Retting, Richard A.; Ferguson, Susan A.; McCartt, Ann T.
“A Review of Evidence-Based Traffic Engineering Measures Designed to Reduce Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Crashes”
American Journal of Public Health
September 2003; v.93, n.9.; pp. 1456-1463.
On the Web
Relevance: low

The authors reviewed studies on engineering measures used to reduce the risk of pedestrian injuries.  These measures were classified into speed control, separation of pedestrians from vehicles (in time and space), and increased visibility of pedestrians. Highly effective measures include:

  • single-lane roundabouts,
  • sidewalks,
  • exclusive pedestrian signal phasing that stops all traffic while pedestrians cross all ways,
  • pedestrian refuge islands, and,
  • increased intensity of roadway lighting

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Craig 2002 - “Exploring the Effect of the Environment on Physical Activity: A Study Examining Walking to Work”

Craig CS, Brownson RC, Cragg SE, Dunn AL.
“Exploring the Effect of the Environment on Physical Activity: A Study Examining Walking to Work.”
American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
August 2002; v.23,n.2S2,s.1; pp36-43.
On the Web
Relevance: medium

Craig et al combined Canadian census data (demographics and journey to work) with neighborhood observations of walkability (density, diversity, design, safety) to find that environmental factors do influence walking to work.  Urbanization had the largest effect but variety of destinations, ease of walking, and social dynamics also played a role.

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