Fruin 2004 - "Black Carbon Concentrations in California Vehicles and Estimation of In-Vehicle Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Exposures"

Fruin, Scott A; Winer, Arthur M; Rodes, Charles E.
"Black Carbon Concentrations in California Vehicles and Estimation of In-Vehicle Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Exposures"
Atmospheric Environment
August 2004; v.38, n.25; pp.4123-4133
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The authors measured black carbon (BC) concentrations inside vehicles driven around LA and Sacramento. BC is typically associated with diesel emissions. The authors found that the most important predictor of in-vehicles BC concentrations was the type of vehicle followed, with diesel buses and delivery trucks that had ground-level exhaust pipes being the worst. Following a gasoline powered car did not increase BC concentrations.

The authors also estimate daily exposure to diesel particulate matter (DPM), concluding that compared to earlier models, "in-vehicle DPM exposures appear to make very significant contributions to overall DPM exposures, randing from approximately 30-55% of total DPM exposure on a statewide, population basis.  Thus the in-vehicle microenvironment may be the most important route of overall DPM exposure, though only 1.5h day-1 is spend there, on average."

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