Kelly-Schwartz 2004 - "Is Sprawl Unhealthy?"
Kelly-Schwartz, Alexia; Stockard, Jean, et al
"Is Sprawl Unhealthy? A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship of Metropolitan Sprawl to the Health of Individuals"
Journal of Planning Education and Research
December 2004; v.24, n2; pp.184-196
On the Web
The authors replicated and extended Ewing et al's work on the effect of sprawl on health. They compared self- and physican-rated health as well as a variety of chronic conditions across metropolitan areas while controlling for income, education, sex, etc. They found that sprawl does affect health somewhat, but in a complex way that is difficult to track. It appears that a highly gridded street network is associated with better health while more density is associated with poorer health. While sprawl was not significantly associated with a higher prevalence of chronic conditions, among those with those conditions, the gridded street network was associated with better health.